Decentralisation is critical to any blockchain application. The Real-time Optimistic Payments Protocol spans the walled garden of the decentralised world and the off-chain real world (such as order management and order fulfilment in eCommerce).

The Real-Time Payments


  • The transfer of user funds (i.e. tokens) to the RTOP-Smart contract is decentralised to the degree the hosting blockchain is decentralised. In fact it is a normal transfer of funds from the sender's account to the receiver's account.
  • The deposited funds are held in the receiver smart contract under the sole control of the receiver - there is never a need to move/transfer the funds outside the receivers smart contract until the receiver is ready to withdraw the funds to his/her wallet.
  • The receiver has the same guarantees the deposit was made as would be provided by looking at the balance on a digital wallet. The blockchain transaction is enriched with the intent and purpose of the payment.


  • Can store a copy of the RTOP-Verifiable receipt and resend if needed - it cannot be lost permanently in transmission.
  • Has a non-repudiable verification of his deposit and its purpose that can be used to dispute and ask for a refund if there is not a delivery. NB: This is optimal since even traditional escrow contracts cannot provide guarantees to both a sending and receiving party off-chain fulfilment cannot be directly verified by the blockchain.
  • The sender is not exposed to bridge security risks or bridge fees.